美國精神醫學會發佈了一份冠狀病毒與心理健康的建議,同時提醒醫療人員也要照顧自己的身心健康。

疫情爆發時,社會大眾常見的心理與行為反應包括:失眠、沒安全感、產生「找戰犯」的心理、更常抽菸與喝酒、全身痠痛、容易疲累等身體化症狀。而媒體雖然在疫情其間是很重要傳遞知識的工具,但也有可能是散播謠言、陰謀論的平台,而對社會大眾的身心健康反而有負面的影響。

在此有幾項穩定患者與家屬心理健康的建議:

1.定期接收正確的訊息:台灣的疾管署的「疾管家」(也有Line的官方帳號)每天都有提供適量、正確的訊息。

2.遵守洗手、咳嗽禮節等基本衛教的內容。

3.醫療人員應該協助導正錯誤的訊息和假新聞。

4.適量接觸媒體資訊:瞭解足夠的訊息就夠了。

5.壓力管理:對於疫情感到壓力是正常的心理反應,不需要壓抑這些情緒;反之應該藉此機會練習壓力管理。保持每天有愉快的活動、與家人和朋友互相支持,也可以試試一些減壓放鬆技巧或是運動。

(內文中建議參考美國疾管署資訊,林醫師直接改寫為台灣疾管署的「疾管家」,等比較適用台灣現況的內容。)

(財團法人國家衛生研究院 林煜軒醫師摘要整理)

Infectious disease outbreaks, such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), create significant distress for the public and strain health care systems tasked with caring for affected individuals and containing the disease. Fear and uncertainty heavily influence public behaviors (1). Concerns focus on personal and family safety, inability to distinguish the new disease from more established and benign illnesses, potential for isolation and quarantine, effectiveness of treatments being used, and trust in institutions responsible for managing the response. 

Adverse psychological and behavioral responses to infectious disease outbreaks are common and include insomnia, reduced feelings of safety, scapegoating, increased use of alcohol and tobacco, somatic symptoms (physical symptoms, such as lack of energy and general aches and pains), and increased use of medical resources (2). While media can be a useful tool for sharing knowledge, it also enables rumors and conspiracy theories to be amplified, which can distract public attention from accurate sources of information, reduce participation in health-promoting behaviors, and further community divisions (3). Distress about the infectious disease outbreak is often increased by exposure to traditional and social media content, which is often sensational in nature and may contain misinformation (4). 

…

Author:Joshua Morganstein
原文連結:https://www.psychiatry.org/news-room/apa-blogs/apa-blog/2020/02/coronavirus-and-mental-health-taking-care-of-ourselves-during-infectious-disease-outbreaks

By LL