第一宗新冠肺炎人傳人的病例於2020年2月21日於義大利確診以來,義大利成為亞洲地區以外,新冠肺炎疫情擴散規模最大的國家。為防止新冠肺炎疫情繼續擴散,義大利政府於米蘭地區成立緊急醫療部門,針對以下對象進行篩檢:1.於「紅色警戒區」居住或延長停留者。 2.曾與疑似或確診的新冠肺炎病例親密接觸者。3.曾與停留或居住在「紅色警戒區」內或中國並有呼吸道症狀的病人親密接觸者。這些特定對象由緊急醫療部門評估是否需住院治療或居家檢測並隔離。近來研究報告指出COVID-19病毒有擴大傳播的趨勢,全世界公衛體系面臨此挑戰,應做好萬全的準備。

(財團法人國家衛生研究院 蔡慧如博士摘要整理)

The number of people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is dramatically increasing worldwide.1 The first person-to-person transmission in Italy was reported on Feb 21, 2020, and led to an infection chain that represents the largest COVID-19 outbreak outside Asia to date. Here we document the response of the Emergency Medical System (EMS) of the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, to the COVID-19 outbreak.

On Jan 30, 2020, WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern.2 Since then, the Italian Government has implemented extraordinary measures to restrict viral spread, including interruptions of air traffic from China, organised repatriation flights and quarantines for Italian travellers in China, and strict controls at international airports’ arrival terminals. Local medical authorities adopted specific WHO recommendations to identify and isolate suspected cases of COVID-19.34 Such recommendations were addressed to patients presenting with respiratory symptoms and who had travelled to an endemic area in the previous 14 days or who had worked in the health-care sector, having been in close contact with patients with severe respiratory disease with unknown aetiology. Suspected cases were transferred to preselected hospital facilities where the SARS-CoV-2 test was available and infectious disease units were ready for isolation of confirmed cases.

Since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 local transmission was confirmed, the EMS in the Lombardy region (reached by dialling 112, the European emergency number) represented the first response to handling suspected symptomatic patients, to adopting containment measures, and to addressing population concerns. The EMS of the metropolitan area of Milan instituted a COVID-19 Response Team of dedicated and highly qualified personnel, with the ultimate goal of tackling the viral outbreak without burdening ordinary EMS activity (figure). The team is active at all times and consists of ten health-care professionals supported by two technicians.

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Author:Stefano Spina, Francesco Marrazzo, Maurizio Migliari, et al.
原文連結:Stefano Spina, Francesco Marrazzo, Maurizio Migliari, et al.